Historical US Military Operations Relating to Africa (1945-1999)

Operations Main Page

The United States was a very young country when it first saw its military engaged in conflict in Africa.  The Barbary Wars in the early nineteenth century marked one of the first expeditionary engagements for the new nation.  Still, it was not until after the end of the Second World War, as nations in Africa began to shrug off colonialism, that the US really took a significant interest in the continent.  With the end of colonialism came the rise of new political movements, and Africa became an important front in the Cold War.  The United States spent significant energy supporting its side of the argument and the US military were called upon on more than one occasion to assist.  As the Cold War entered its twilight, interest dwindled again.  Still, the US conducted numerous operations in the 1980s ranging from punitive strikes to supporting international peace operations to non-combatant evacuation and humanitarian assistance operations.


Historical Operations
Name Locale Start Date End Date
Shadow Express Liberia 21 Sep 1998 7 Oct 1998
Infinite Reach Sudan 20 Aug 1998 20 Aug 1998
Resolute Response Kenya / Tanzania 31 Aug 1999 7 Aug 1998
Shepherd Venture Guinea-Bissau 10 Jun 1998 17 Jun 1998
Safe Departure Eritrea 5 Jun 1998 6 Jun 1998
Noble Response Congo 21 Jan 1998 25 Mar 1998
Firm Response Congo 10 Jun 1997 18 Jun 1997
Noble Obelisk Sierra Leone May 1997 Jun 1997
Guardian Retrieval DRC Mar 1997 Jun 1997
Assured Lift Liberia 18 Feb 1997 7 Mar 1997
Assurance / Phoenix Tusk / Guardian Assistance Zaire / Rwanda / Uganda 15 Nov 1996 27 Dec 1996
Quick Response Central African Republic May 1996 Aug 1996
Assured Response Liberia Apr 1996 Aug 1996
United Shield Somalia 3 Jan 1995 25 Mar 1995
Quiet Resolve / Support Hope Rwanda 22 Jul 1994 30 Sep 1994
Distant Runner Rwanda 9 Apr 1994 15 Apr 1994
Quick Draw Somalia 1994
Continue Hope Somalia 4 May 1993 Dec 1993
Restore Hope Somalia 4 Dec 1992 4 May 1993
Provide Relief Somalia 14 Aug 1992 8 Dec 1992
Provide Transition Angola 3 Aug 1992 9 Oct 1992
Silver Anvil Sierra Leone 2 May 1992 5 May 1992
Quick Lift Zaire 24 Sep 1991 7 Oct 1991
Eastern Exit Somalia 2 Jan 1991 11 Jan 1991
Sharp Edge Liberia May 1990 8 Jan 1991
Mount Hope III Chad ? 1988 Jun 1988
El Dorado Canyon Libya 12 Apr 1986 17 Apr 1986
Attain Document Libya 26 Jan 1986 29 Mar 1986
Arid Farmer Chad / Sudan Aug 1983
Early Call Egypt / Sudan 18 Mar 1983 Aug 1983
Dragon Blanc / Dragon Vert DRC Proposed Nov 1964, Cancelled
Dragon Noir DRC Nov 1964
Dragon Rouge DRC Nov 1964
Running Bear DRC Nov 1964 ? 1964
High Beam DRC Oct 1964 Nov? 1964
Golden Hawk / Low Beam DRC Sep? 1964 Oct? 1964
Ready Move / II / III DRC Jan 1964 Oct 1964
Sandy Beach II Mali Jan 1963 May 1963
Sandy Beach Mali Aug 1961 Sep 1961

NOTE: If no end date is provided the start date is both the start date and the end date.  Missing or unclear information is indicated by a question mark.

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